Effect of Diabetic Foot Spa on Lower Extremity Circulation with Ankle Brachial Index in Patient with Diabetes Mellitus : A Systematic Review


  • Uti Uswatun Nisa Department of Nursing, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto
  • Sapta Rahayu Noamperani Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan, Yogyakarta
  • Yunita Sari Department of Nursing, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto




Diabetic foot spa; foot circulation; and ankle brachial index.


Background: Foot care for diabetics is important because of the complications of diabetic neuropathy. One of the foot care for DM is diabetic foot spa. Research related to the benefits of foot spas is quite a lot. Still, research related to the effectiveness of diabetic foot spas in influencing the quality of lower extremities circulation of DM patients with an indicator of increasing the value of ankle brachial index (ABI) is still minimal.

Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of the diabetic foot spa on the lower extremity circulation with the ABI as an indicator of diabetes mellitus patients.

Method: This systematic review refers to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The search was limited to articles with the type of original research. The databases used are Google Scholar, ProQuest, PubMed, National Library, and ScienceDirect. Assessment of article quality is carried out using JBI's Critical Appraisal Tools checklist.

Result: The search results obtained 214 articles. The article was continued with the identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion process so that 3 articles included in this study which will be carried out in the review process. The review results showed that the diabetic foot spa intervention is effective in improving the lower extremities circulation with an indicator of increasing the ABI value of DM patients.

Conclusion: Diabetic foot spa effectively increases the circulation of the lower extremities, characterized by an increase in the ABI value in DM patients.