Callus as a Risk Factor for the Recurrence of Diabetic Foot Ulcers


  • Sukarni Tanjungpura University
  • Jaka Padika Jaka Nursing College, STIK Muhammadiyah Pontianak
  • Arina Nurfianti Arina Nursing Department, Medical Faculty, Tanjungpura University



Recurrent ulcers; Risk factors; Diabetic foot ulcers; Callus


Background: The risk factors for recurrence of diabetic foot ulcer include the duration of diabetes, obesity, dietary patterns, foot care, blood sugar levels, physical activity, psychology, sensory neuropathy, foot deformity, medication, hypertension, footwear, circulation, social interaction, spiritual aspects, ethnicity, and wound history. Knowledge of the dominant factors is needed to carry out priority actions to prevent wounds development.

Purpose: The study aimed to find out the most dominant factor that causes recurrent wounds in diabetic foot ulcers patients.

Methods: This study used a case-control design to determine the most dominant factors that cause diabetic foot ulcers recurrence using 64 subjects. The firstly developed wound was in 32 patients, and then another 32 persons had the recurrence. Moreover, the relationship between the variables sought is the factors causing a recurrent wound in patients with diabetes mellitus. The bivariate analysis performed was chi-square, fisher, and multivariate using multiple logistic regression.

Result: Four dominant factors were found to be the causes of the recurrent disease, namely footwear usage (p = 0.012), circulation (p = 0.024), sensory neuropathy (p = 0.024), and callus (p = 0.011), and multiple logistic regression test produced callus had the highest OR value (4.51).

Conclusion: Callus is the most dominant factor that causes recurrent diabetic foot ulcers.