Walking Speed and Insole that Reduce Plantar Pressure in Diabetes: a Review


  • Fahni Haris Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
  • Afrizal Firman Departement of Business Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
  • Kellyana Irawati Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
  • Ferry Fadzlul Rahman Universitas Muhammadiyah Kalimantan Timur




walking speed; insole; diabetes; plantar pressure


Background: An increased pressure under the plantar area is a robust indicator to enhance foot ulceration in people with diabetes. Different walking speeds have different pressure distributions and require unique methods such as modification of insole material and structure for decreasing plantar pressures in that area of the foot.

Purpose: This review aimed to evaluate the walking speed and insole material that minimize plantar pressure in the different regions among people with diabetes.

Methods: The studies were retrieved from four major scientific databases (Web of Science ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and PubMed). We discovered 1128 studies, of which 13 met the eligibility for full-text analysis.

Results: Most studies obtained walking speed at respondents' felt comfortable. The foot sensor most used were Pedar-X and F-Scan to gain plantar pressure. The most insole material was EVA.

Conclusion: The suitable walking speed for DM was their appropriate speed, and EVA was the most common insole material used to decrease the PPP.